La Palace of Caserta, the largest royal residence in the world is one historical house belonged to the real house to the Bourbon of Naples, World Heritage SiteUNESCO.
It is surrounded by a large park divided into two sectors: the Italian garden, with the famous and evocative Great Waterfall, and the garden English with thick woods.
Il Palazzo royal was wanted by the king of Naples Charles of Bourbon, who, fascinated by the beauty of the surrounding landscape and with the desire to give a worthy seat of representation to the government of the capital Naples and to his realm, he established he wanted one to be built royal palace so big and magnificently suggestive that it can stand comparison with that of Versailles.
Initially it had to be erected in Naples, but Charles of Bourbon, knowing the vulnerability of the capital to possible attacks, especially by sea, he thought to build it inland and precisely in the Caserta area, a safer place and not too far from Naples.
After the refusal of Nicola Salvi, due to serious health problems, the sovereign turned to the architect Vanvitelli, at the time engaged in the restoration of the basilica of Loreto on behalf of Pontifical State. Charles of Bourbon he managed to get from the Pope permission to be able to commission the artist.
The king wanted the project to include the palazzo, the park and the arrangement of the surrounding urban area, with the provision of a new aqueduct (Carolino Aqueduct) that crossed the complex of San Leucio.
La royal palace it had to become the symbol of the new state Bourbon and at the same time manifesting power and grandeur, but it must also be efficient and rational.
Vanvitelli he arrived he came to Caserta in the 1751 and immediately began to elaborate the design of the palazzo; his obligation was to make one of the most beautiful d'Europe. In the same year thearchitect submitted to king of Naples the final draft for approval. The 20 January 1752, during a solemn ceremony and in the presence of the royals the first stone was laid.
This significant episode is remembered by the fresco of Gennaro Maldarelli, located in the vault of the Hall of the Throne.
The pharaonic work that was to be carried out pushed Vanvitelli to surround himself with very valid collaborators: Marcello Fronton, Francesco Collecini e Martin Biancour, who was appointed head-gardener.
The year after, when the construction work was already well under way, the construction of the park began, the works of which lasted several years and some details remained unfinished. In the 1759, Charles of Bourbon He ascended the throne of Spain and he left Naples to Madrid.
I kings that succeeded him, Gioacchino Murat, which made an important contribution to the embellishment of the palace, Ferdinando IV , Francesco I, Ferdinando II and Francesco II, with whom he ended up in Italy Bourbon dynasty.
In the 1773 he died Vanvitelli and he was succeeded by his son Carlo, who, although a valid architect, did not possess the fancy and stubbornness of his father and encountered considerable difficulties in continuing the work according to the project paternal.
La royal palace, last great achievement of the Barocco Italian, it was completed in the 1845 and covers an area of about 47.000 m². In addition to the rectangular perimeter construction, the palazzo has, within the rectangle, two bodies of made which intersect on a cross and form four large internal courtyards.
Crossing the threshold of the main entrance opens a vast vestibule octagonal adorned by winds Doric columns. On the right and on the left there are the passages that lead to the internal courtyards.
After all, a third vestibule gives rise to the park. The magnificent opens on one side of the vestibule great staircase real double-ramp, authentic masterpiece of architecture late-baroque equipped with 117 steps and immortalized in numerous film films.
At the edge of the first landing of the flight of steps there are two marble lions of Pietro solari e Paolo Persico, while the ceiling was frescoed by Girolamo Starace-Franchis with The four Seasons e The palace of Apollo. On the central wall is a statue of Charles of Bourbon, a work created by Tommaso Solari, flanked by La verità e Il merita, made by Andrea Violani e Gaetano Salomone.
The double ramp ends in a vestibule located at the center of the entire building and in front of it there is access to the large Palatine Chapel, inspired by that of Palace of Versailles. The little one is placed on the back of the chapel Court Theater, characterized by a horseshoe plant; was inaugurated in 1769 in the presence of Ferdinando I of the Two Sicilies.
To the left of the vestibule instead you access the apartments. The first room is that of the Alabardieri, with paintings by Domenico Mondo, which follows that of the bodyguards, furnished in Empire style and embellished by twelve reliefs of Solomon, Paolo Persico e Tommaso Bucciano.
The next room, called the "baciamano" and entitled to Alexander the Great it was frescoed by Mariano Rossi, which represented the marriage between Alessandro and Rossane. It is located at the center of the main facade and acts as a disengagement between theOld Apartment and l 'New Apartment.
The Old Apartment was the first to be inhabited by Ferdinando IV and from the consort and consists of rooms with walls covered in silk of the San Leucio factory. The first four rooms are dedicated to four seasons and frescoed by Antonio Dominici e Faithful Fischetti.
Ferdinando's study has several tempera paintings di Filippo Hackert representing views of Capri, Ischia, Persano, the Vacchieria di San Leucio, Cava dei Tirreni and the English garden of the palace.
The study leads to the bedroom of Ferdinand II, whose furniture was destroyed and redone in Empire style after the death of the sovereign.
Beyond the room there is the reception hall, which, through a series of anti-cameras, is connected to Library Palatina and therefore to the so-called Elliptical room, which houses a shining example of Neapolitan nativity scene.
The New Apartment was built between the 1806 and the 1845. It is accessed via the Hall of Mars, of neoclassical styleDesigned by Antonio de Simone and frescoed by Antonio Galliano.
Continuing beyond the adjacent Sala di Astrea, rich in reliefs and gilded stuccos of Valerio Villareale e Domenico Masucci, then we reach the imposing one Hall of the Throne, the richest and most evocative environment of the royal apartments, the place where the king received ambassadors and official delegations and where the justice of the sovereign was administered and were kept high court dances.
A room full of gilding and paintings, finished in 1845 on a project by the architect Gaetano Genovese.
The walls are embellished with a series of golden medallions with the effigy of all the rulers of Naples, and from another series with the coats of arms of all the provinces of the kingdom. The vault is dominated by the fresco of Gennaro Maldarelli which recalls the ceremony of laying the first stone.
The subsequent rooms, which represent the heart of the New Apartment, were completed after the 1816. Among these we remember the room of Gioacchino Murat, in Empire style, with mahogany furniture and chairs with the initials of the same Murat.
Avenue Douhet, 2 / a, 81100 Caserta CE