Villa d'Este it is an absolute masterpiece of the garden Italian, world heritage included in the list of sites UNESCO.
The impressive concentration of fountains, the nymphaeums, the suggestive ones caves, the wonderful ones Water games and hydraulic music, have made it a unique model over time, emulated several times in both European gardens and mannerism that the barocco.
Also to consider the extraordinary landscape, artistic and historical context in which the villa is located, the municipality of Tivoli, which not only includes this extraordinary masterpiece but also presents the prestigious remains of ancient villas such as Villa Adriana.
The imposing constructions and the terraces above terraces, inevitably make us think of them Hanging Gardens of Babylon, wonder of the ancient world; the aqueduct and a tunnel under the city, undoubtedly evoke the engineering skills ofRoman times.
The Cardinal Hippolytus II d'Este, disappointed by the failed papal election, wanted to revive here the glories of the courts of Ferrara, Rome and Fointanebleau and among his desires there was also the rebirth of the magnificence of Villa Adriana.
He was governor of Tivoli from the 1550 and even then he had the idea of creating a garden on the slope of the "Gaudente valley".
Only after the 1560 the architectural and iconological program of the Villa was developed, thanks to the genius of the painter-archaeologist-architect Pirro Ligorio and subsequently realized by the architect Alberto Galvani.
The direction of the works for the decoration of the halls of the Palazzo it was entrusted to famous protagonists of late Roman Mannerism, Livio Agresti, Federico Zuccari, During Alberti, Girolamo Muziano, Cesare Nebbia and Antonio Tempesta.
In the 1605 the cardinal Alessandro d'Este established an additional program of interventions for the restoration and repair of damage to the vegetation and plumbing systems. This project also included a series of innovations to the structure of the garden and to the decoration of the fountains.
Further work was carried out between the 1660 / 70, when he finally intervened Gianlorenzo Bernini.
Unfortunately, around the eighteenth century, the lack of maintenance caused the decline of the complex, subsequently aggravated by the transfer of the property to the House of Habsburg.
Il garden it was slowly abandoned and i hydraulic games that were no longer used, they went into ruin. The collection of ancient statues was completely dismembered and transferred.
The state of degradation continued until the mid-nineteenth century, a period in which the cardinal Gustav von Hohelohe, obtained the villa from the dukes of Modena, began a new series of work to avoid the total degradation of the complex.
Since then the villa has once again become an essential cultural reference point, and the cardinal usually hosted the musician Franz Liszt that right here, probably inspired by the uniqueness of the place, he composed Water games at Villa d'Este for piano, and held one of his last concerts in the 1879.
During the First World War the villa became the property of the state; open to the public and entirely restored.
A subsequent radical reconstruction was carried out after the Second World War, to repair the damage caused by the bombing.